Object Storage Reference

The Joyent Manta Storage Service uses a REST API to read, write, and delete objects. This document assumes that you are familiar with HTTP-based REST systems, including HTTP requests, responses, status codes, and headers.

If you want to start with basic information on Manta object storage, read Getting Started.

Unless otherwise specified, the semantics described here are stable, which means that you can expect that future updates will not change the documented behavior. You should avoid relying on behavior not specified here.

Storage Overview

The storage service is based on three concepts: object, directories, and SnapLinks.


Objects are the primary entity you store in Joyent Manta Storage Service. Objects can be of any size, including zero bytes. Objects consist of your raw, uninterpreted data, as well as the metadata (HTTP headers) returned when you retrieve an object.


There are several headers for objects that control HTTP semantics in Manta.

Content Length

When you write an object, you must use one of two headers:

Chunked encoding lets you stream an object for storage without knowing the size of the object ahead of time. By default, the maximum amount of data you can send this way is 5GB. You can use the optional max-content-length header to specify how much space you estimate the object requires. This estimate is only an upper bound. The system will record how much data you actually transferred and record that. Subsequent GET requests will return the actual size of the object.

100-continue Request Header

You can, but are not required to, use the Expect: 100-continue header in your write requests. Using this header saves network bandwidth. If the write request would fail, the system returns an error without transferring any data. The node-manta CLI use this feature.

Content Headers

You should always specify a Content-Type header, which will be stored and returned back (HTTP content-negotiation will be handled). If you do not specify a content type, the default is application/octet-stream.

If you specify a Content-MD5 header, the system validates that the content uploaded matches the value of the header. You must encode MD5 headers in Base64, as described in RFC 1864.

The durability-level header is a value from 1 to 6 that specifies how many copies of an object the system stores. If you do not specify a durability level, the default is 2. While you can set a durability-level of 1, doing so would put your data at a higher risk of loss.

Conditional Request Headers

The system honors the standard HTTP conditional requests such as If-Match, If-Modified-Since, etc.

CORS Headers

Cross-Origin Resource Sharing CORS headers are supported on a per object basis.

If access-control-allow-origin is sent on a PUT, it can be a comma separated list of origin values. When a request is sent with the origin header, the list of values of the stored access-control-allow-origin header is processed and only the matching value is returned, if any. For example:

echo "foo" | \
    mput -q -H 'access-control-allow-origin: foo.com,bar.com' /:login/public/foo
$ curl -is -X HEAD -H 'origin: foo.com'
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Connection: close
Etag: f7c79088-d70d-4725-b716-7b85a40ede6a
Last-Modified: Fri, 17 May 2013 20:04:51 GMT
access-control-allow-origin: foo.com
Content-MD5: 07BzhNET7exJ6qYjitX/AA==
Durability-Level: 2
Content-Length: 4
Content-Type: application/octet-stream
Date: Fri, 17 May 2013 20:05:58 GMT
Server: Manta
x-request-id: 30afb030-bf2d-11e2-be7d-99e967737d07
x-response-time: 7
x-server-name: fef8c5b8-3483-458f-95dc-7d9172ecefd1

If no origin header is sent, the system assumes that the request did not originate from a browser and the original list of values is echoed back. While this behavior does not conform to the CORS specification, it does allow you to administratively see what is stored on your object.

access-control-expose-headers is supported as a list of HTTP headers that a browser will expose. This list is not interpreted by the system.

access-control-allow-methods is supported as a list of HTTP methods that the system will honor for this request. You can only specify HTTP operations the system supports: HEAD, GET, PUT, DELETE.

access-control-max-age is supported and uninterpreted by the system.


The HTTP cache-control header is stored and returned by the system. This is useful for controlling how long CDNs or a web caching agent caches a version of an object.

Custom Headers

You can store custom headers with your object by prefixing them with m-. For example, you might use the header m-local-user: jill to tag an object with the name of the user who created it.

You can use up to 4 KB of header data.


Directories contain objects and other directories. All objects are stored at the top level or subdirectory one of the following directories:

Directory*Description *
/:login/storprivate object storage
/:login/publicpublic object storage
/:login/jobsstorage for objects created by jobs
/:login/reportsstorage for logs and reports

Private Storage (/:login/stor)

As noted above, /:login/stor functions as the top level, or root, directory where you store objects and create directories. Only you can read, write, and delete data here. You can create any number of directories, objects and SnapLinks in this directory.

While the system does not yet support discretionary access controls on objects or directories, you can grant access to individual objects in this namespace by using signed URLs, which are explained below.

With the exception of signed URL requests, all traffic to /:login/stor must be made over a secure channel (TLS).

Public Storage (/:login/public)

/:login/public is a world-readable namespace. Only you can create and delete objects in this directory. Read access to objects in this namespace is available through HTTP and HTTPS without authorization headers. Deletions and writes to this directory must made over a secure channel.

Jobs (/:login/jobs)

/:login/jobs functions as the root directory for compute jobs.

When a new job is created, it gets a directory named /:login/jobs/:id, where :id is the UUID of the job. Once a jobs is archived, listing a job directory would return this.

mls /:login/jobs/343958c6-bf07-11e2-ab36-bb9b003de5dc

The contents of a job's directory is a complete snapshot of all data available over the jobs API. You can clean this data up using mrm -r. You can also use mfind to generate a list of objects in the directory.

Only you or jobs you create can read, write, and delete data in this directory.

Jobs Storage (/:login/jobs/:id/stor)

By default, /:login/jobs/:id/stor contains data created during job execution.

Since the compute framework automatically creates data here, you will typically only be interested in the reading and deleting objects from this directory.

Note that only data emitted during the last phase of a job will have data here.

Reports (/:login/reports)

/:login/reports is the location where the system delivers aggregated usage reports and raw HTTP access logs. Learn more about the reports directory in the Reports Reference section. Only you can manage data under /:login/reports.

Working with Directories

You create a directory the same way that you create an object, but you use the special header Content-Type: application/json; type=directory.

When you retrieve a directory, the response has the Content-Type: application/x-json-stream; type=directory header. The body consists of a set of JSON objects separated by newlines (\n). Each object has a type field that indicates whether the JSON object specifies a directory or a storage object.

Here is an example with additional newlines added for clarity.

    "name": "1c1bf695-230d-490e-aec7-3b11dff8ef32",
    "type": "directory",
    "mtime": "2012-09-11T20:28:30Z"

    "name": "695d5de6-45f4-4156-b6b7-3a8d4af89391",
    "etag": "bdf0aa96e3bb87148be084252a059736",
    "size": 44,
    "type": "object",
    "mtime": "2012-09-11T20:28:31Z"
typeEither object or directory.
nameThe name of the object or directory.
mtimeAn ISO 8601 timestamp of the last update time of the object or directory.
sizePresent only if type is object. The size of the object in bytes.
etagPresent only if type is object. Used for conditional requests.

When you use an HTTP GET request to list a directory, the result-set-size header in the response contains the total number of entries in the directory. However, you will get 256 entries per request, so you will have to paginate through the result sets. You can increase the number of entries per request to 1024. Results are sorted lexicographically.

To get the next page of a listing, pass in the last name returned in the set until the total number of entries you have processed matches result-set-size.

You can store CORS, cache-control and m- headers on directories, as you can on objects. Currently, no data is supported on directories.


SnapLinks allow you to create an alternate name for a point-in-time reference to an object. SnapLinks do not consume any extra bytes in your usage, as they do not create a new copy of data. They simply create an extra name that points at existing object data.

SnapLinks are useful for creating arbitrary versioning schemes in client applications. You can create SnapLinks across directories. You can use SnapLinks to build any form of snapshotting mechanism desired.

Because objects in the system are copy-on-write, when the object that was the target of a SnapLink changes, the SnapLink does not change. Conceptually, SnapLinks are like a Unix hard link that is copy on write.

As an example from the getting started guide:

echo "Object One" | mput /:login/stor/foo
$ mln /:login/stor/foo /:login/stor/bar
$ mget /:login/stor/bar
Object One
$ echo "Object Two" | mput /:login/stor/foo
$ mget /:login/stor/foo
Object Two
$ mget /:login/stor/bar
Object One

When you create a SnapLink, all of the metadata is copied from the source object. There is no way to add additional metadata.

Storage System Architecture

This section describes some of the design principles that guide the operation of the Joyent Manta Storage System.

Guiding Principles

Several principles guide the design of the service:

System scale

Joyent Manta Storage Service is designed to support an arbitrarily large number of objects and an arbitrarily large number of directories. However, it bounds the number of objects in a single directory so that list operations can be performed efficiently.

The system does not have any limit on the size of a single object, but it may return a "no space" error if the requested object size is larger than a single physical server has space for. In practice, this number will be in tens of terabytes, but network transfer times make object sizes of that magnitude unreasonable anyway.

There is no default API rate limit imposed upon you, however the system reserves the right to throttle requests if necessary to protect the system. For high-volume web assets, you should use it as a content delivery network (CDN) origin.

All REST APIs are modeled as streams. They are designed to let you iterate through result sets without consuming too much memory. For example, listing a directory returns newline separated JSON objects as opposed to an array or large XML document.


At a simple level, durability is a system's ability to tolerate failures without a loss of data. By default, the system stores two copies of your object and these two copies are placed in two different data centers. Distributing copies of your objects reduces the risk of data loss in the event of a failure. The system relies on ZFS RAID-Z to store your objects, so the durability is actually greater than two would imply. You can store anywhere from 1 to 6 copies.

You are billed for exactly the number of bytes you consume in the system. For example, if you write a 1MB object with the default number of copies (2), you will be billed for 2MB of storage each month. When the number of copies requested is greater than one, the system ensures that at least two copies are placed in two different data centers, and then stripes the other copies across data centers.

If any given data center is down at the time, you may have copies unbalanced with extra replicas in fewer data centers, but there will always be at least two data centers with your copy of data. This allows you to still access your data in the event of any one data center failure.